4 Early Civilizations of the World

Pyramids, 4 Early Civilizations of the World
Pyramids of Egypt

Egyptian Civilization

Egyptian Civilization - 4 Early Civilizations of the World
The sculptures of pharaohs and ancient Egyptian drawings on the columns of the Luxor Temple. Egypt

The earliest Egyptian civilization was flourishing in the Nile valley, some thousands of years before the birth of Christ. It is remarkable that in 4241 B. C ., the ancient Egyptians, who were Hamites, invented a yearly calendar of 365 days. A great line of more than 30 Egyptian Pharaohs ruled Egypt one after another till the country was invaded by the Assyrians in the 7th century B. C. The Persians conquered Egypt in 525 B.C. This thriving land with her ancient record of civilization finally lost her freedom and remained in fetters. 

After the death of Cleopatra in 31 B. C., Egypt was conquered by the Romans. The Arabs captured Egypt in 641 A.D ., and ever since then, Islam has dominated this land.

Asian Civilizations of BABYLONIA and ASSYRIA

Asian Civilizations of  BABYLONIA and ASSYRIA - 4 Early Civilizations of the World
Ruins of Hierapolis ancient city, Turkey.

The Sumerians who were neither Semitic nor Aryan in racial origin had developed a high degree of civilisation by 3,500 B.C ., in Sumeria (modern Iraq). They knew the art of writing and they opened libraries with clay books.

In 2,700 B. C ., Semitic Akkadians conquered Sumeria. At that time the Amorites, another Semitic tribe, were ruling the city of Babylonia. About 1300 B. C ., another Semitic people, who were living in Assur, became strong and conquered Babylon. In 732 B. C ., the Assyrians captured Damascus (modern Syria). The conquest of Egypt, Palestine and adjoining countries followed soon. 

The Assyrian empire collapsed in 612 B.C., when the Chaldeans helped by the Medes and the Persians captured Nineveh. It was King Nebuchadnezzar (604-561 B. C.), – the ruler of the Assyrian people, who constructed the famous hanging gardens of Babylon to please his wife. Nineveh fell to the Persians in 538 B. C.

India – The Land of Lost Civilizations

India - The Land of Lost Civilizations - Indus Valley - 4 early civilizations of the world
Confluence of Indus and Zanskar Rivers in Himalayas. Indus valley, Ladakh, India

India was enjoying an advanced and the best organised civilisation among her contemporaries. Arms and utensils of stone, copper and bronze were extensively in use. The use of cotton for textiles was already known. 

The Indus Valley civilisation of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa flourished long before the Aryans came to settle. Relics of art and architecture, buildings, baths, and drainage systems, of coins and crafts that have been traced, indicate a civilisation that reached its peak in 3,000 B.C. The source and the history of this high order of culture and cooperative living are unfortunately lost in obscurity. 

Antiquity of civilisation in India has been further proved by the excavation of ‘Chitradurga ‘ In Mysuru (Mysore). Despite the minor remnants found, the lost civilisations of India are as authentic as those of ‘Polynesia’ and ‘Atlantis’. 

Chinese Civilization – The Paradise of Historians

4 Early Civilizations of the World
Stone pavilion in the chinese garden. Hangzhou, China

Continuity of Chinese civilization was better maintained than that of many countries not excluding Egypt and India. About 3,000 B C., tribes from Central Asia had moved and settled down near the Huang-Ho which is better known as the “Yellow River”. These tribes were culturally quite advanced and some of them, if not all, knew agriculture and house-building. In the period between 3,000 and 2,150 B.C., there reigned the Five Rulers. About 2,200 B.C., the Xia dynasty was established by Yu the Great, who was the last of the Five Rulers. 

  • Huang-di (The Yellow Emperor), c. 2697 – c. 2597 BCE.
  • Zhuanxu, c. 2514 – c. 2436 BCE.
  • Emperor Ku, c. 2436 – c. 2366 BCE.
  • Emperor Yao, c. 2358 – c. 2258 BCE.
  • Emperor Shun, c. 2255 – c. 2195 BCE.

To begin with, China was a loose confederation of thousands of city states under an emperor. Later, for the first time in Chinese history, a well organised central state appeared under Shang or Yin dynasty which was established by T’sang about 1766 B.C. This great Shang dynasty lasted till 1122 B.C. 

Beginning of Human Civilization

History of Mankind

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