This world has got philosophers from different countries. In this post, we will read about some great philosophers of the world.
Great Philosophers of the World
Age of Philosophers in China
The high order of civilization that had a continuity of thousands of years in China also bred great apostles and teachers. Two great thinkers and social reformers Lao Tzu and Confucius lived in the period of the Zhou dynasty which was founded by Wu Wang in 1122 B.C ., and lasted for about 900 years. Confucius, born in 531 B.C ., introduced numerous moral codes of life.
The philosophy of everyday life as preached by Lao Tzu and Confucius not only did infinite good to the Chinese people but also left a lasting impression on Chinese culture.
Persia, The land of Zarathustra
The wandering Aryans of Central Asia crossed into Persia sometime about 1800 B.C. The history of Persia begins when king Cyrus established the Persian Empire by overthrowing the Medes in 550 B.C. Darius, I succeeded Cambyses, the son of Cyrus in 521 B.C ., to an empire that extended from Asia Minor to the Indus, including Egypt and a part of Greece.
In 490 B.C ., the Persians were defeated by the Athenians at the battle of Marathon. Xerxes succeeded Darius and the Persian Empire fell to Alexander in 323. B. C. Seleucus and his descendants ruled Persia for 500 years. In the third century A.C ., after a national uprising a new Sassanid dynasty was established.
The prophet Zarathustra gave the Persians their religion which is strikingly similar to that of the Vedas on one hand and the Buddhism on the other. Good words, good deeds, and good thoughts were the ideals that this remarkable seer of the 8th century B. C ., advocated. Zend-Avesta, the legendary scripture of Zarathustra is one of the noblest books of teachings.
Zoroastrianism flourished in Persia till the country fell to the Arabs in 651 A.D. Thereafter, the Persians gradually took to Islam and since then Islam has been continuing as the national religion of Persia.
Age Of Pericles In Greece
The victories over the Persians at Marathon and Salamis had made the Greeks ambitious and proud. But they had a brilliant phase of national prosperity under the great statesman Pericles.
The Age of Pericles (466-429 B.C.) produced great thinkers, writers, and sculptors. The great Socrates and Plato, Phidias and Sophocles, Euripides, and many other learned men of Greece belonged to this age. Herodotus, the historian, settled in Athens about this time.
Socrates the great believed that religion was the true knowledge. After the death of Pericles, Socrates, the great was condemned to death by the Athenian Government. It could not tolerate him and considered him a heretic.
Socrates and his pupil Plato, the Western pioneers to introduce skepticism and logic in the human thought process, were the two great forerunners of Science, Rationalism, and modern Philosophy.
Philip was the king of Macedonia. He was able and intelligent and built a powerful army. Aristotle, the father of the Western Philosophy and Science, was made the teacher of his famous son Alexander.
Alexander, after his many conquests, entered India through the Khyber Pass and defeated Porus the ruler of this part of India (There are controversies around it). Alexander now decided to turn back and on his way home he died in 323 B. C. Forthwith his great empire was shattered to pieces and was divided among his three generals-Seleucus, Ptolemy and Antigonus. Persia, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and the North-Western India were held by Seleucus; Egypt fell to Ptolemy; Macedonia was secured by Antigonus.
It was the age of the setting sun for glorious Greece that produced Pericles and Alexander as well as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were Great Philosophers Greece produced.
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