The Mauryan Dynasty, India Under Mauryan Rule
When Alexander conquered the north-west part of India, Mahapadma Nanda was the ruling king in Pataliputra, the capital of Magadha ( Bihar ). Finding Chandragupta, a resident of Pataliputra, clever and ambitious, Nanda managed to force him out of his country.
Chandragupta went to Taxila and organised a powerful army with the support of the local tribes. He overran the Punjab and drove away the Macedonians after the death of Alexander. He avenged himself on Nanda by defeating him in 321 B.C .,and established the great Mauryan Empire. Seleucus attempted to recover the Punjab, but was routed in 303 B.C. A Machiavellian Brahmin Chanakya was the brain behind the achievements of Chandragupta.
From Panini, the grammarian of 600 B. C ., to Chanakya of 300 B.C ., it was the age of scholars who mostly fought to save the Sanskrit language and the Brahminical supremacy from the onslaught of Pali and Buddhism respectively.
After Alexander’s Death
Alexander’s empire did not last long after his death. Macedonia was raided by the Gauls in 279 B.C ., and was conquered by the Romans in 197 B.C.
Seleucids and Bactrians ruled over Persia, Mesopotamia and Asia Minor for about two centuries.
Alexandria, the capital of Egypt under the Ptolemies, with its famous library and museum became the cultural centre of the world. Euclid, the father of Geometry, was a citizen of Alexandria. Cleopatra was the queen of Egypt when it was conquered by the Romans in 31 B.C.
With the empire, Greece of the emperors died. But Greece of the philosophers and historians, of thinkers and sculptors, of writers and artists lives even to-day.