History of Mankind (Chapter 12)

This is the 12th Chapter of History of Mankind. Read about Aryan Democracy, Rise of Rome, End of Julius Caesar’s World.

Aryan Democracy

In old days villages of India and city states of Greece were governed by their elected ‘panchayats’ or councils. A kind of democracy existed. But it was confined to Aryans only, while slaves, low castes and women had virtually no status or freedom. Concept of equal rights of man was missing in the limited democracy of the Aryans. Kings and slaves stood in the way of a broader base. Caste system in some form or the other had also its contribution. Long after Greece died, the villages have remained, as they are to-day, the core of India’s political and economic life.

Rise of Rome

The various settlements along the Tiber united and Rome was founded as early as 750 B.C. Rome, however, became a republic of rich men. The common citizens went on struggling against the aristocrats and the former slowly came into power in 287 B.C. The Phoenician Colony of Carthage in North Africa was the chief naval power in the Mediterranean. So a conflict began for the Mediterranean supremacy in 264 B.C. There were three wars between Rome and Carthage (The Punic Wars), until Carthage was completely destroyed in 146 B.C. Hannibal, the brilliant general played a gallant part in the defence of Carthage. With rise of Rome, begins a new era of civilisation in Europe.

End of Julius Caesar’s World

With the fall of Carthage, the politicians of Rome adopted an aggressive foreign policy on their way towards world domination. Sicily, Spain, Macedonia, Greece and Asia Minor were captured one after another to be annexed to the Roman empire.

It was a life of luxury and pomp in Rome. There were disorders and frequent risings of the gladiators, slaves and the poor. The corrupt senate was overshadowed by generals like Pompey and Julius Caesar who became the masters of the Roman world. Caesar having routed Pompey had made himself the undisputed leader in 45 B.C. But many of the senators did not like the idea of a one-man rule. And Caesar was assassinated in 44 B.C.

Caesar’s adopted son Octavian became the monarch of the Roman empire in 27 B.C ., under the name of Augustus Caesar and had a flourishing reign. After his death in 14 A. C ., the Caesar’s empire began to dwindle only to vanish and to make way for the next.

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