History of Mankind (Chapter 2)

This is Chapter 2 of “History of Mankind”.

Before reading this chapter it is advised that you go through the “History of Mankind (Chapter 1)”


Man’s nomadic movement in search of food and shelter went on for thousand of years. In course of hunting he discovered the better use of animals dike Cow, buffalos, etc. With enemies of life all around the man made friends of these animals and utilised them in many ways.

Domestication of animals helped man lo settle down in fixed places for longer period. This was the beginning of the age when man turned to other means for food than hunting. It, of course, took many more thousands of years before man observed the process of vegetable growth and discovered agriculture.

From the earliest days Man had another problem and that was to find a safe dwelling. As soon as he had learned to make tools he built his own hut with a hatched roof supported by tree trunks. Some groups lived together in lake villages for mutual protection.


Discovery of agriculture between 7,000 and 8,000 B.C., was a revolutionary step. It is easy to imagine that while men hunted, the women found out about the seeds that would be made to germinate.

With the science of cultivation and the use of caves, food and shelter ceased to be much of a problem. Domestication of animals and castles, use of milk and land are the landmarks of this period when man found more leisure than ever before.

It was about this time that small hoards of human beings flocked together to live in primitive villages which they built. It is primarily agriculture that changed the wandering hoards into settled and organised groups.

Use of animals for agriculture
Use of animals for agriculture @ThePoemStory
Ploughing field using domestic animals
Ploughing field using domestic animals
Domestic animals @ThePoemStory
Domestic animals @ThePoemStory


Such groups gradually grew into society and these villages into towns. Surplus production of food gave them the time and the incentive to make other necessities of life. Canoes were made. Rivers could be crossed. Travel and trade were possible.

As they began to live together, the question of respecting mutual rights and maintaining social order arose. As the means of production improved, supervisors and organizers became richer through other people’s labour. Kings and nobles sprang from amongst these leaders and pioneers.

About 4,000 B.C., copper came to serve mankind—at least in Egypt, India and Mesopotamia. Recorded history of man’s progress dates from this period, Civilisation begins.

Expansion Of Human Civilization

For about 2,000 years civilisation attained a brilliant peak even before the Aryans came. From Egypt to China ran a belt of progress spreading over three continents of Asia, Europe and Africa. India, Arabia, Mesopotamia, China, Greece, Rome and Crete formed the chains in the pattern of a these high order of human life.

These civilisations produced thinkers and writers, artists and musicians, scientists and engineers—versatile men who rose to be masters of collective destiny. They lived and died for the posterity.

Video on beginning of civilization

The Birth of Civilisation – The First Farmers (20000 BC to 8800 BC)


References: Cave Paintings of India

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