Topics we will read here are, Paradise Of Historians-China, Egyptian and Pyramids, Aryans and the dispute on their origin. History Of Mankind (Chapter 4).
Previous Chapter: History Of Mankind (Chapter 3)
Paradise Of Historians – China
Continuity of Chinese civilization was better maintained than that of many countries not excluding Egypt and India. About 3,000 B C., tribes from Central Asia had moved and settled down near the Huang-Ho which is better known as the “Yellow River”. These tribes were culturally quite advanced and some of them, if not all, knew agriculture and house-building. In the period between 3,000 and 2,150 B.C., there reigned the Five Rulers. About 2,200 B.C., the Xia dynasty was established by Yu the Great, who was the last of the Five Rulers.
- Huang-di (The Yellow Emperor), c. 2697 – c. 2597 BCE.
- Zhuanxu, c. 2514 – c. 2436 BCE.
- Emperor Ku, c. 2436 – c. 2366 BCE.
- Emperor Yao, c. 2358 – c. 2258 BCE.
- Emperor Shun, c. 2255 – c. 2195 BCE.
To begin with, China was a loose confederation of thousands of city states under an emperor. Later, for the first time in Chinese history, a well organised central state appeared under Shang or Yin dynasty which was established by T’sang about 1766 B.C. This great Shang dynasty lasted till 1122 B.C.
Egypt and Man’s Creative Urge
Ancient Egyptians took great pains to preserve their dead bodies as a home for the soul to return. Their Pharaohs or kings constructed pyramids to preserve their own bodies which were made into mummies after death. These pyramids were built by slaves who had to work hard under the burning African sun.
The Egyptians knew the art of writing and drawing. They made paper from papyrus plant. The credit of introducing the use of alphabet in Europe and of inventing yearly calendar goes to the Egyptians. The art of making excellent pots and jars and of weaving linen were also known to them. Art and architecture in Egypt were the finest expression of the human mind eager to contribute to the cause of beauty.
What History tells us about Aryans?
Aryans from Central Asia invaded India and Greece in the period between 1500-2000 B.C. After a prolonged conflict, conquest was complete, and the Aryans settled down. Facing well developed civilization in both the countries, they could not escape the impact of ancient Dravidian culture of India and Cretan culture of Greece. It was the history of one culture absorbing the other and, in the process, assimilating a considerable portion of the earlier human traditions.
The dispute on Aryan Origin
Some historians believe that Aryans were the local inhabitants of the Indian Peninsula and they belong to the ancients civilizations of India.
There are recent excavations in Sinauli district of Uttar Pradesh that strenghthen the belief of Aryans belonging to India. The chariot found points towards them being warriors. Female in the society also had a warrior position in the society.