History of Mankind (Chapter 8)

This is the 8th Chapter in History of Mankind. Read about, Age of Philosophers in China, Persia, Zarathustra, Confucius, Lao Tzu, Quotes by Confucius.

Age of Philosophers in China

The high order of civilisation that had continuity of thousands of years in China also bred great apostles and teachers. Two great thinkers and social reformers Lao Tzu and Confucius lived in the period of Zhou dynasty which was founded by Wu Wang in 1122 B.C ., and lasted for about 900 years. Confucius, born in 531 B.C ., introduced numerous moral codes of life.

The philosophy of everyday life as preached by Lao Tzu and Confucius not only did infinite good to the Chinese people, but also left lasting impression on Chinese culture.

Persia, The land of Zarathustra

The wandering Aryans of Central Asia had crossed into Persia sometime about 1800 B.C. The history of Persia begins when king Cyrus established the Persian Empire by overthrowing the Medes in 550 B.C. Darius I succeeded Cambyses, the son of Cyrus in 521 B.C ., to an empire which extended from Asia Minor to the Indus, including Egypt and a part of Greece.

In 490 B.C ., the Persians were defeated by the Athenians at the battle of Marathon. Xerxes succeeded Darius and the Persian Empire fell to Alexander in 323. B. C. Seleucus and his descendants ruled Persia for 500 years. In the third century A.C ., after a national uprising a new Sassanid dynasty was established.

The prophet Zarathustra gave the Persians their religion which is strikingly similar to that of the Vedas at one hand and to the Buddhism on the other. Good words, good deeds and good thoughts were the ideals that this remarkable seer of the 8th century B. C ., advocated. Zend-Avesta, the legendary scripture of Zarathustra is one of the noblest books of teachings.

Zoroastrianism flourished in Persia till the country fell to the Arabs in 651 A.D. Thereafter, the Persians gradually took to Islam and since then Islam has been continuing as the national religion of Persia.

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